Model A2 is a new socionics model with 16 IM elements — now known as quadra elements (QEs) — which are the equivalent of signed elements or charges as in Model G or Model B, and also 16 functions (unlike Model G which only has eight functions).

Each quadra element corresponds to exactly one type which has it as its leading function (representing its main agenda), and functions correspond to intertype relationships. So for example Alpha Fe corresponds to ESE.

I initially encountered some roadblocks in defining Model A2 directly, and saw that the foundations of Model A could be (and needed to be) hashed out first, in particular the IM elements which are the most apparent and well-defined part of the theory. Now that the IMEs are in large part taken care of, research on defining the QEs and types can continue.

Model A2 defines the essence of the quadras and types in the same way that Model A defines the essence of the IM elements and functions. The types are defined reductively in Model A as the joining of one rational element and one irrational element — this is a valid definition but it is not a holistic one. Model A2 is intended as a conservative extension of Model A where the two quadra versions of an element (e.g. Beta and Gamma Ni) are just specific versions of the regular IM element (Ni).

Previously we examined the ring relation and contrary elements (those that correspond to types with the contrary or extinguisher relation), but the particular nature of the quadra elements seem to come from aligning with the type's creative and mobilizing function, and especially the mobilizing function because it is innately more similar to the leading function. (To see this, notice how the creative function is the vulnerable function of the kindred type.)

The signed element notation (+Ti, -Ne, etc.) is now deprecated — signs of this kind must always refer to a Reinin dichotomy (or post-Reinin dichotomy) whose meaning remains unclear. It is also possible to call e.g. LSI's Ti "Se valuing Ti" or "sensing Ti (TiS)" but there isn't a great notation for the former and Model A2 emphasizes the values connection more (plus the latter is already used by some Model G users). So from now on I will simply refer to the elements as Beta Ti, Delta Ne, Gamma Fi, etc. — abbreviated as bTi, dNe, gFi, etc. These names also have been used informally in the Western community even if just for "Beta Fe" vs. "Alpha Fe" and not in any kind of systematic or principled way.

Model A2 is based on a new form of quadra progression, where Beta comes first, then Alpha, Gamma, and Delta. The quadras too are understood holistically, as having certain metaphysical and geometric essences. One way to understand this progression is as a movement from intensity to complexity, where reality expands from an initial state of absolute simplicity to include maximal variety and reach a stable and complete equilibrium that nevertheless allows for changes of state, a kind of "metaphysical homeostasis".

If Model A is an "information model" and Model G is supposed to be an "energy model" then Model A2 is a process model, where IMEs are processes that seek out certain states. This incorporates both information and energy, in that every process requires 1) recognition of input (and distinguishing whether it needs to be transformed or not, and how) and 2) implementation using psychological energy (what Jung called "libido").

The following description is incomplete, but also less speculative than the previous articles on Model A — we mostly suspend for the moment speculative definitions of dichotomies and the 16 functions, sticking to the individual quadra elements and quadras (groups of four quadra elements). So anything written here should be considered mostly definitive.

We also include type names — these are intended to capture the essence of the type as closely as possible. But while the underlying concept may be correct, there may not always be a perfect word in English for it.


In reality Beta is the first quadra, not Alpha. In a sense it is the simplest quadra and it is where things align most naturally. Beta is the quadra of the message: some information that is conveyed in order to have an impact on others.

Beta is self-dominant, others-oriented. These correspond to Se valuing and Fe valuing respectively.

Notice that dichotomous definitions are also reductive and not holistic. An individual object can either be seen as a holistic, irreducible reality, or as being defined by the sum total of information about it. The former is closer to the reality of the thing, as information tends to be partial and approximative. In other words it is a mistake to see the types and IM elements merely as intersections of dichotomies. Even if they were, this causes a regression to the questions "Why these dichotomies? And why are they independent?"

Beta Fe

Beta Fe is EIE's version of Fe. Beta Fe is the drawing of attention through communication. We defined Fe in general as communication, and Beta Fe is the aspect of communication that is self-dominant, in that the communicator inherently draws attention to himself and what he communicates, while the receiver of communication is in a relatively subordinate and hidden role. You can imagine it as an orator delivering a speech in front of a large anonymous crowd. EIEs seek to draw attention to a message, an idea, or themselves — to emphasize the importance of some information in opposition to all other possible things that might have been said, but weren't. The choice of what information to present and what to omit is the most fundamental aspect of presentation — we know many things but don't say all of them, we only say what we consider important to say and what we feel others should be more aware of. People only have a limited amount of attention so a message that is not emphasized enough may fail to have any impact. The need to make a choice and focus on one possibility implies Ni. It's also possible to put a lot of "spin" on information and deceive people through omitting important facts rather than emphasizing them.

Fe communicates internal state, which may or may not be explicitly expressible as information in language. Most communication is probably nonverbal, and communication means getting someone else to feel the way you feel, to "charge" them with your emotions. For the message to have content it has to have some element of logic — pure bFe is merely the totally spontaneous expression of the self from moment to moment. So it is pure initiative unconstrained by external input — nondeterministic. In a sense this drive is described by Augusta's physical metaphor for Fe, conversion of potential energy into kinetic energy, but more generally in the external manifestation and propagation of what was hidden and internal (the present state of the individual).

Nondeterminism seems to contradict the classical definition of rationality. This is expected, since the classical definition never really applied that well to EIEs (and ESEs to a lesser extent). But Fe also conveys intentions. So in that sense Fe leading types are predictable, their inner state is bared for all to see through communication, in advance of taking action based on it, even if the state itself is ever-changing and unpredictable.

Self-manifestation or self-expression is in a way the most fundamental of all desires. It needs no reason other than itself, and it is the reason for leaving the safety and stability of what exists for something greater: "I was a hidden treasure and I wanted to be known."

Every action expresses what is in the actor just as every expression is itself an action. So while expression (bFe) is a specific form of action (Se) it is also comprehensive of action. This is the way that Fe and Se join together in Beta. They are the same process, but viewed from different perspectives.

EIE: The Promoter, someone who draws attention to something. Not necessarily promotion for financial gain but may be in service of a principle.

Beta Se

Beta Se is SLE's version of Se. Beta Se is the command. A king issues general proclamations, or he issues orders to his immediate deputies and then they implement them directly or delegate further to their inferiors.

Se only recognizes outcomes once they are observed, as impact (which is analogous to the response or reaction to Fe's message, but more asymmetric). The command is realized in the world as the world — the world that is envisioned (Ni). In this way the world becomes an extension of the self, but with the self in charge. Compare Hegel's dialectic of opposites: the self requires otherness to be defined, generating it as a necessity, but it also seeks to re-absorb it into itself through the command.

So like bFe, bSe seeks to be the source and not the target, the giver of orders and not the receiver, the constrainer and not the constrained. Communication causes the self to be in a dominant position just as being in a position of power attracts attention to the self. So Se and Fe together form a purely expansive process, making Beta the most intense and apparent quadra.

From the perspective of Si, Se is change in state and disturbs the existing equilibrium. So in physics Se is analogous to speed, (the magnitude of) change in position (in some space of states).

SLE: The Commander, someone who issues commands to control some sphere. Conqueror has some merit as a name to conveying the idea that SLEs seek to expand their power, not only to control their current sphere. Or Leader (more vague).

Beta Ti

Beta Ti is (and seeks out and creates) the relationship of order. The command or message is a linguistic abstraction, and its being carried out is its reality. "For every truth there is a reality."

The goal of bTi is not to be at the top of the hierarchy but to ensure that the intent of the hierarchy or system is carried out, the value system that it is intended to realize. So the intents and wishes of the commander are carried out in the world. So it is prescriptive structure, where the language precedes what it describes, as opposed to Alpha Ti which is the opposite. In other words, making something true as opposed to seeing why it is true. The cause is nothing but the will of the one who caused it.

When a hierarchy is fully developed (as something like the "transitive closure" of vertical order, in technical terms) it will have relations of subordination between different parties and possibly cases where there is no clear hierarchy. bTi will seek to erase ambiguity about who is in control in a given situation, and to ensure that the hierarchical (vertical) relations of power are respected. In cases where people control different spheres, it has no need to expand one's own sphere of control, unlike Beta Se. So it is more detached from the self, uninvolved as an IME.

But you do need some power to enforce the system, so LSIs are often found in positions that have some power, but more likely a mid-level functionary role than a public-facing role at the top (which also requires some Fe).

LSI: The Officer, someone who occupies a specific position and role in a hierarchy. Or Functionary, Official, Enforcer.

Beta Ni

As mentioned, the other Beta elements seek to have some kind of impact on the world or one's surroundings. Beta Ni mentally generates or envisions or dreams of some ideal but as yet unrealized world or situation, which determines a direction of future evolution, and which may be realized by Se. So IEI takes the role of a seer or dreamer. As mentioned in earlier articles, this form of Ni is more positive than Gamma Ni, in that it is not purely rejective but imagines and longs for a replacement for what currently exists, rather than only focusing on the flaws that are present. bNi continually ruminates on and deepens the picture of one's ideal world and is responsible for generating fictional worlds as well (escapism). It is negative in (mentally) moving away from and being dissatisfied with what exists or is present. The direction of depth is away from the surface and what is present or apparent, but it also imbues what is present with depth and meaning.

IEI: The Dreamer (or Seer), someone who imagines an ideal world.


Alpha is the second quadra. It is the quadra of inclusion. From the perspective of Beta, Alpha's Ne deviates from the singular purpose just as Se deviates from the present state from the perspective of Si. So Ne is change in direction (goal) just as Se is change in position (state). Change in position must precede change in direction because direction of movement is only defined for a moving object. As limited creatures we often need to change our understanding of the world based on new information, so we may need to change the direction we're moving in towards our goal, even if the ultimate goal does not change.

Alpha Ti

Alpha Ti seeks to describe structure, and it does so starting from specific data or contradictory models or understandings. By resolving contradictions it arrives at a general picture of what is fundamental and what is derived, what is necessary and what is contingent or possible. In so doing it embeds the specifics in a general explanatory model. This structure has both vertical and horizontal aspects: the vertical relation of inclusion between the abstract general and concrete specifics, as well as the horizontal relation between distinct specifics, which are possibilities inherent in the structure, and some of these may align more with the structure than others, while others are local deviations.

So while Beta Ti seeks individuals to fill roles, Alpha Ti seeks (abstract) places for individual data, i.e. contexts.

LII: The Theorist, someone who comes up with generalized forms of knowledge.

The traditional name of Analyst for LII has some merit but the process is really closer to theorization than analysis, moving towards what is general rather than what is specific.

Alpha Ne

As mentioned, structures contain possibilities and variety by virtue of their generality and applying to specific instances. The more general it is, the more possibilities it includes.

Alpha Ne discovers and generates new possibilities to include in one's awareness or understanding, e.g. by considering different ways of logically permuting concepts. For example, generally people wear hats and animals do not. But one can consider the concept of wearing hats independent from the concept of being human, and come up with the idea of say, a dog wearing a hat. So two concepts or predicates that may imply each other materially (where all examples of one are examples of the other) can be independent conceptually — which can be demonstrated by realizing the possibility materially (making clothing for dogs), but aNe is primarily concerned with coming up with the possibility rather than realizing it (which necessitates some Se). So aNe distinguishes between material implication and conceptual implication, and necessary vs. possible connections in this way.

When applied to the propositions True and False (False implying True), this leads to the paradoxical idea that something may be True and False, or neither True nor False. Or more concretely, some quality may be both present and absent (e.g. in different places or times), or neither present nor absent (representing a subjective lack of information about its presence).

Generation of potential means "returning to the beginning" and therefore can be seen as backwards motion with respect to the purpose of Ni, not only lateral movement. But once a desired state is achieved there is nothing to do but to look at the new possibilities for goal states. And in fact every definite state (or act of information reception) is followed by new potential opening up for subsequent states, otherwise time would not continue to progress. So we can say that change is Se, but difference or variety is Ne.

ILE: The Innovator (or Inventor), someone who comes up with new possibilities.

Alpha Fe

Just as aTi includes information in abstract structures, aFe includes individuals in real social gatherings. So it seeks to proactively create a setting or atmosphere that is conducive to welcoming newcomers, and the people present remaining present and having all their needs fulfilled.

aFe is others-dominant in that it submits its own needs to those of others and the group.

The communicator is dominant (apparent) by the transmission of a particular message but submissive (hidden) by the fact that communication makes him a part of the world, and conceals or diminishes his individual identity as part of the group identity. So the focus for aFe is on group inclusion as well as the medium or channel of communication rather the content (as mentioned in previous articles). The medium itself is hidden potential for communication (Ne), the message is the manifest actuality of communication (Se). So ESEs do not try to convey a specific message but just to expand interaction and the group of people they interact with.

ESE: The Host, someone who hosts a social gathering and tends to everyone's needs in it. Or Entertainer (in the sense of a host rather than a performer).

Alpha Si

Alpha Si maintains, and is, the state that is desired. It is not the deficient state that precedes action but the relatively more stable state that results from successful action. The initial state can be likened to a seed and the final state to a tree that emerges from the seed to give fruit and shade to everyone below it. So Alpha Si is like the cultivation of a beautiful garden that provides for various needs and desires of its owners. A seed is only potential, the garden is actual and adding more plants and trees to a garden does not change its essential identity as a garden.

When the tree is fully formed it generates new seeds, which is akin to how Ne opens up new potential, returning to the beginning state of indeterminacy, where a choice has been presented but not made yet. But this is a partial return, in that the initial state need not be preceded by any action to generate it (or in the analogy, one seed is present with the tree and the other may not be).

to be continued